VMWare-Installation

Lab 1 – Installation

Overview

Upon completion of this lab you will have:

  • A host installed with Centos 7, fully updated using KVM for virtualization
  • 3 Virtual Machines (named centos1, centos2, centos3 respectively) running Centos 7
  • Sudo configured on all 4 machines, and an understanding of how to use it

Installation instructions for Centos 7

  1. Download a copy of the Centos 7 installation DVD (64 bit edition) from the Centos web site or burn the DVD using Seneca’s Freedom Toaster which is located in the Open Lab on the 2nd floor of the TEL building. Note: we’ll be using the 64 bit version of Centos because all of our lab computers are equiped with Intel 64 bit mainboards and CPUs. The virtual machines will install faster if done using the ISO and not a DVD. Finally, if you’re going to burn your DVD using the Freedom Toaster then be sure to use a blank DVD-R disc. DVD+R discs sometimes fail to burn successfully.
  2. Insert your HDD into the docking bay of a PC in the lab and boot the computer using your installation DVD. If possible try to use the same PC for this course for the rest of the semester. Some PCs may be configured with slight hardware variations from others which may cause problems when moving your HDD from one system to another.
  3. Perform your installation following these guidelines:
    • wherever possible select the default options
    • set your hostname to your c7host.
    • set Toronto as your time zone
    • For the installation type, choose ‘Graphical Server’
    • set the root password
  4. After completing the installation, remove the DVD and reboot from your HDD.

Tip: Boot Menu
If you got the boot failure message, restart the computer and press [F10] to get to the boot menu, select the Hard Disk as boot device and continue.

Booting your system

  1. create a user named with your learn ID
  2. Login as the user you created and open a terminal window. Then use ‘su’ to become root and run the ‘yum update’ command. Reboot after all updates have completed. Now that your system is up to date, again login using your learnid and do the following:
    • Verify that your system date and time are correct. If not then set the correct system date and time.
    • Verify that your network is functioning.
    • Run and record the output of the ‘df -hT’ command.
    • Run and record the output of the ‘cat /etc/fstab’ command.
    • Run and record the output of the ‘cat /etc/issue’ command.
    • Run and record the output of the ‘uname -a’ command.
  3. Under Applications > System Tools right click both “Terminal” and “Virtual Machine Manager” and select “Add this launcher to panel”

Configuring a Linux Gateway

At this point you have a basic Centos 7 installed and updated. This will serve as a host for the virtual machines where you will do the majority of the work in this course. All the rest of our labs will assume you have this basic system running. If, for any reason, your system becomes corrupted during the semester, you’ll have to redo this lab to be able to continue with the remaining uncompleted labs. You are responsible for YOUR system. If you do not perform back-ups you have taken this risk on yourself. Poor planning on your part does not constitute an emergency for anyone else.

Configuring Sudo

Switch to root using su or su- (remember su- switches you to root and places you in root’s home directory, with root’s profile settings.  su switches you to root, but with your current user’s profile settings and does not change your working directory).

 

Issue the following command:

 

visudo

 

Wikipedia has useful information on why we use visudo instead of directly editing the /etc/sudoers file.  It is worth looking at as it may appear on next week’s quiz.  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sudo#Tools_and_similar_programs

 

Sudo can be configured to allow multiple users administrative access without giving anyone else the root password.  Additionally you can configure sudo to only allow users to execute specific commands with elevated (root) privileges.  Sudo works much the same as Run As Administrator in Windows.  For additional information, I found this video provided a very good explanation:

 

 

 

After issuing the visudo command, find the line that reads as follows:

 

root ALL=(ALL) ALL

 

What this means is allow root to run from any terminal (first all), acting as any user (second all), and execute any command (third all).  Below this line, add the following (substituting your information for learnid):

 

learnid ALL=ALL

Configuring your Hostname

Configure your hostname on your host OS to be c7host, by issuing the following command.

 

sudo vi /etc/hostname

 

Configure your hostname on your host OS to be c7host, by issuing the following command.  Change the line that reads HOSTNAME=localhost.localdomain (or whatever it contains if it does not exactly match this) to the following:

c7host

Note that this change will not take effect until after you reboot, however since you will need to reboot to apply other changes later in the lab it makes sense to do this all at once.

Check virtualization support

 

Before we go any further, check on your host to ensure virtualization support is enabled in your bios.  If it is not, you may have to enable it (if you have permission to) or switch PC’s and find one that has it enabled.  Issue the following command, and search for the parameter “Virtualization”.  If it’s “disabled”, it will say so.  If it says anything else, it’s enabled.

sudo lscpu

Installing the virtualization software

You can now execute any command that requires elevated privileges without switching to root, as long as you type sudo before it and supply your user password (not your root password).  You will need to install some software to allow your machine to act as a host for virtual machines

sudo yum -y install @virtualization virt-manager libvirt

Start and enable the virtualization service

sudo systemctl start libvirtd

sudo systemctl enable libvirtd

Note that when starting libvirtd you may receive a warning ‘virGetHostname: getaddrinfo failed for “Machine Name”: Name or service not known. This will not interfere with your machines.

Reboot your machine (if you have not already as part of the installation process). If you do not, you will not be able to install any virtual machines.  Start the graphical virtual machine manager.  You will need to enter your root password.

Create your own virtual network

  1. Right click ‘localhost (QEMU)’ and select ‘Details’. Click on the ‘Virtual Networks’ tab.
  2. Stop and delete the ‘default’ network.
  3. Use the plus sign to add a new virtual network using the following options.
    • Name your virtual network ‘ops335’
    • Use the network address space assigned to you. Example, if you were assigned 90, the network address would be 192.168.90.0/24.
    • Ensure the DHCP range will allow you to assign at least 3 static IP addresses outside it.
    • Choose ‘Forwarding to physical network’ radio button, ‘Destination: Any physical device’ and ‘Mode: NAT’
    • Ensure the network is started at boot.
  4. Once completed open a terminal and observe and record the output of the following command:

iptables -t nat -L

Installing a Virtual Machine

With the virtualization software installed and your personal network created, you are now ready to create your first virtual machine.  Use your Centos 7 installation dvd (or alternately you can copy the ISO image to your hard drive and install from that).  The later option will result in a slightly faster install.

Installation

  • Click on the icon “Create a new virtual machine” to begin.
  • Name your machine “centos1” and choose your installation method – “Local install media”. Choose the desired option to install from either the CD or iso. For “OS type” select “Linux” and for Version select “Red Hat Enterprise 7” then click on the “Forward” button.
  • Use the 1024 MB memory and CPU options for use with lab computers (Depending on available hardware these settings can be adjusted). Then click on the “Forward” button to proceed.
  • Leave the disk image size set at 8GB, ensure “Allocate entire disk now” is checked, then click on the “Forward” button.
  • At the “Ready to begin installation” window click on ‘Advanced options’ arrow to review available options.
    • Select the Virtual Network named ‘ops335’. Make note of any other available options (you will need them again in the assignments).
  • Select ‘Install to Hard Drive’ to begin your Centos installation. Select the appropriate default options (You may wish to review your OPS235 notes to remind yourself what these are).  The installation process should be identical to what you chose on the host, with the exception of the hostname.
  • During installation you will be prompted to set the root password and an initial user account. For the initial user, enter the same information you entered on your host machine.
  • Set your hostname to “centos1” (If you miss this during the install (also useful after cloning), edit /etc/hostname)

Firstboot – First user created
For successful completion of the labs, please ensure the first user created is named using your Learn ID.

First Boot

  • You may notice that graphical windows are not being displayed properly. The following steps will resolve this.
    • At the first opportunity, shut the VM down. If you perform these steps while the machine is running it will claim they will be applied the next time the machine boots, but that does not work.
    • While the VM is off, click on ‘View’ (from the menu at the top of the VM window), and select ‘Details’.
    • From the menu on the left side, select ‘Video’.
    • Change the drop-down list for Model from ‘Cirrus’ to ‘vga’, and click apply.
    • Switch the view back to ‘Console’ and start the machine again.
  • Ensure your machine has a network connection by running the command

host cbc.ca

If that did not work, edit the line in /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0

onboot=no

should be

onboot=yes

  • If you had to change that, bring the interface down and back up again

sudo ifdown eth0; sudo ifup eth0

  • Once you have a working connection update your machine (this may take a while — while you are waiting it is probably a good idea to update your host as well).

sudo yum -y update

  • Reboot the virtual machine once it is updated.
  • If your virtual machine hangs on boot, you will need to change a graphics option:
    • While the VM is off, click on ‘View’ (from the menu at the top of the VM window), and select ‘Details’.
    • From the menu on the left side, select ‘Display’.
    • Change the drop-down list for Type from ‘VNC’ to ‘Spice’, and click apply.
    • Switch the view back to ‘Console’ and start the machine again.
  • Now run the following commands and note the output. Note how they differ from the Centos installation on your host.

df -hT

cat /etc/fstab

cat /etc/issue

uname -a

Issue the following command, if it displays anything other than centos1 modify /etc/hostname and change your hostname to centos1

hostname

If required to change your hostname, edit /etc/hostname and modify the contents to read centos1.  Use the format provided in the file as guide for the appropriate syntax.

sudo vi /etc/hostname

Cloning a Virtual Machine

  • Now that you have one virtual machine working, you will create two more. If you struggled with the previous steps, repeat them to create two more virtual machines (naming them centos2 and centos3, with hostnames centos2 and centos3 respectively).
  • If you are confident with what you have done so far, you may clone your existing machine to create the others.
    • To quickly create additional VM’s shutdown ‘centos1’, right click and select ‘Clone…’. Use the following options:
  • Name: centos2
  • Storage:
    • Click the drop down menu below ‘centos1.img’, choose details and rename the image to the centos2.img
    • Once successfully created boot the new VM and correct the host name. This can be done using the GUI or command line.
    • Record in your notes how each is done.
    • Check for connectivity.

host cbc.ca

  • After creating centos2 repeat the above steps to create centos3 and correct the host name.

On First Boot:

  • Edit /etc/hostname and change your hostnames to centos2 and centos3 respectively

sudo vi /etc/hostname

Backing up your Virtual Machines

You are responsible for backing up your virtual machines on a regular basis.  It is good practice to copy your back ups to a separate location (like a USB Flash Drive) once completed, so in the event your drive becomes damaged to the point that you can’t access them all you need do is reinstall the host and restore your back ups.  To back up your virtual machines you can do them manually (as you did in OPS235 — review the steps to do so there), or you can use this script that I have provided you.  It requires minimum configuration to make it work on your system, and only needs to be done once.  To get a copy of the script, go to the following link (my personal blog) and click on the download link (under the appropriate heading towards the bottom of the post) entitled “Centos 7 using KVM”:

http://jasoncarman.wordpress.com/category/virtual-machine-backup-and-restore-script/

To configure this script so it will work on your host, some changes will be required.  Modify the contents of the variables near the top of the script (below the large comment block) so that dpath represents the path on YOUR host.  spath and vms can be left unmodified, unless you didn’t follow the naming convention for virtual machines outlined above.  In that case, you must change these to reflect what is available on your system.  If you require any assistance configuring or using this script, please ask.

Once your script is configured properly, save and exit the text editor you used to make the necessary changes.  From your command line, create the directory “backup” in your home directory

cd

mkdir backup

Now, copy the script into the backup directory.  Change to that directory and make the script executable (using chmod +x).  To back up your virtual machines, issue the following command within the backup directory.

./vs -b

Backing up your virtual machines will still take on average 5-7 minutes per virtual machine.  The advantage to doing it this way is, you can go do something else while the process finishes.

Completing the Lab

Upon completion of this lab you should have 4 installed machines. One machine running Centos 7 and acting as a host and gateway for three virtual machines also running Centos 7. Make sure that each machine can access the network (for example, to get updates) and can ping each other.

Exploration questions:

  1. What are the steps to configure sudo?
  2. What kernel release is your host system running (this will be the same on your virtual machines)?
  3. What is the UUID (Universally Unique Identifier) of your root file system? What command was used to obtain this information?
  4. What is the size and type of the /boot file system on your host  What command was used to obtain this information?
  5. What file(s) was edited to change the host name?
  6. How are ping and ssh affected (on both machines) when you run the following command on the host machine (be sure to revert this change by echoing 1 afterwards)?
    • echo 0 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward

 

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